北京城市下垫面动力学参数的计算与分析
投稿时间: 2014-12-04  最后修改时间: 2016-04-02  点此下载全文
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肯巴提·波拉提 南京信息工程大学 应用气象学院, 江苏 南京 210044;新疆维吾尔自治区气象服务中心, 新疆 乌鲁木齐 830002 another325@163.com 
李煜斌 南京信息工程大学 地理与遥感学院, 江苏 南京 210044  
基金项目:国家重点研发计划(2016YFA0602101);国家自然科学基金资助项目(41505004)
中文摘要:采用北京325 m铁塔2008-2012年的单层超声观测资料,基于莫宁-奥布霍夫相似理论(Monin-Obukhov similarity theory)和前人提出的最小误差分析方法,计算了铁塔周边下垫面的零平面位移高度和动力粗糙度长度。结果表明,由于铁塔位于北京市区,其周边下垫面呈现极其复杂的非均匀性,所以对应铁塔周边不同的扇区,零平面位移高度和动力粗糙度长度各有不同。平均而言,在2008-2012年间,铁塔周边下垫面的零平面位移高度为34.4 m,动力粗糙度长度为1.16 m。此外,综合前人的计算结果发现,铁塔周边的零平面位移高度和动力粗糙度长度在2001年之前呈显著增加的趋势,而在2001年以后并未增长,这一现象与铁塔周边的城市化进程相对应。
中文关键词:莫宁-奥布霍夫相似理论  城市下垫面  零平面位移高度  动力粗糙度长度
 
Estimation and analysis of aerodynamic parameters of Beijing
Abstract:With the accelerated pace of urbanization in Beijing,the expansion of urban scale outside the Third Ring Road in twentieth Century has been extremely rapid.That which has been suburban non-uniform underlying surface for the past 80 years has now developed into rough complex urban areas under the underlying surface,and corresponding increases in urban buildings and population density have also resulted in a significant increase in the surface dynamics of urban land.Displacement height(d) and surface roughness length(z0) can be used to characterize the physical properties of the surface,and their size can directly affect the exchange between the ground and atmosphere fluxes,which in turn affects the physical and chemical conditions of the entire atmosphere.However,for urban underlying surfaces,it is often difficult to determine d and z0 precisely because of their significant non-uniform surfaces(e.g.different shapes of houses and trees of different heights).Martano(2000) proposed a method for calculating d and z0 based on monolayer observations.This method simplifies the mathematical problem of solving two-dimensional variables into one-dimensional variables by using the least squares method.Gao and Bian(2004) used this method and calculated the surrounding d and z0 using the observation data of the Beijing 325 m meteorological tower in 2001,and obtained d=36.0 m,z0=1.6 m.However,these two values were obtained more than a decade ago,thus it was necessary to reassess the two values due to the development of the area.As a follow-up study of Gao and Bian(2004),the present paper also uses Martano's method to calculate the d and z0 around the tower by using the observation data of the 325 m meteorological tower in Beijing from January 2008 to March 2012.The core purpose of this paper is to obtain the displacement height d and surface roughness length z0 around the tower,which can then be applied to the atmospheric numerical model,and be used to minimize the error caused by the inaccuracy of these two parameters.The study results show that,due to the heterogeneity of the underlying surface,both displacement height d and surface roughness length z0 vary with the wind directions.From an average perspective,d=34.4 m and z0=1.16 m are obtained as the representative values of the site for the years 2008-2012.By comparing the results obtained in this study with those from previous studies,it is shown that the zero-plane displacement d and aerodynamic roughness length z0 at this site had increased before 2001,but have not since.Such a phenomenon is associated with the urbanization of the tower's surrounding areas.
keywords:Monin-Obukhov similarity theory  urban surface  zero-plane displacement  aerodynamic roughness length
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