弱垂直风切变下台前飑线不同发展阶段的热、动力特征分析
投稿时间: 2016-06-02  最后修改时间: 2016-09-12  点此下载全文
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陈耀登 南京信息工程大学 气象灾害教育部重点实验室/气候与环境变化国际合作联合实验室/气象灾害预报预警与评估协同创新中心, 江苏 南京 210044  
王芳 南京信息工程大学 气象灾害教育部重点实验室/气候与环境变化国际合作联合实验室/气象灾害预报预警与评估协同创新中心, 江苏 南京 210044  
章丽娜 中国气象局 气象干部培训学院, 北京 100081 zhangln@cma.gov.cn 
高梦竹 南京信息工程大学 气象灾害教育部重点实验室/气候与环境变化国际合作联合实验室/气象灾害预报预警与评估协同创新中心, 江苏 南京 210044  
牛泽毅 南京信息工程大学 气象灾害教育部重点实验室/气候与环境变化国际合作联合实验室/气象灾害预报预警与评估协同创新中心, 江苏 南京 210044  
基金项目:国家自然科学基金资助项目(41675102);国家重点基础研究发展计划(2013CB430102);国家科技支撑计划(2015BAC03B06);南京信息工程大学气象灾害教育部重点实验室开放课题基金资助项目(KLME1311)
中文摘要:以2014年7月18日09号超强台风"威马逊"影响期间,发生在湘赣地区的一次台前飑线过程为例,讨论了在垂直风切变明显弱于中纬度飑线情况下台前飑线的生成与发展机制。研究表明:1)在飑线初生阶段,弱垂直风切变与较弱冷池相平衡使得飑线垂直发展,其前部上干冷下暖湿的不稳定环境条件是其发展加强的热力因素;台风倒槽右侧风向水平切变、飑线前侧的阵风锋是其发展的动力条件。2)在飑线成熟阶段,飑线后侧的地面冷池范围变大、强度变强,导致飑线前方的水汽及能量补给减弱;同时飑线后部中层干冷空气入侵加强,飑线上升气流向冷池方向倾斜,垂直抬升条件减弱,不利于台前飑线的发展维持。成熟阶段的这两个特点表明台前飑线由盛转衰。3)在飑线消散阶段,由于飑线远离台风,台风的影响减弱,导致台前飑线水汽和动力条件不足,从而消亡。
中文关键词:台前飑线  垂直风切变  威马逊  台风  热动力特征
 
The thermal and dynamic characteristics of the squall line in front of the tropical cyclone in different stages under weak vertical shear
Abstract:In this study,based on observations and numerical simulations,the squall line in front of the tropical cyclone in Hunan and Jiangxi Provinces of China,which preceded the super typhoon "Rammasun"(2014) was simulated and investigated,and the formation and development mechanism of this pre-TC squall line were discussed,as the vertical wind shear in this case was significantly weaker than the squall line in mid-latitude.The diagnostic analysis results showed the following:
Due to the fact that the typhoon moved northward and the subtropical anticyclone moved westward,the pressure gradient between them increased,which led to the enhancement of the low-level air current.The mid-and low-level wind field was a relatively homogeneous southwesterly flow in the area,which was influenced by the squall line,thus the wind direction and wind speed changes were not significant in the vertical direction.As a result,the low-and mid-level vertical shear before the squall line in front of the tropical cyclone were weaker than the mid-latitude squall line.Based on the mesoscale numerical model,the thermodynamic characteristics of the squall line at different stages under weak shear environment were analyzed emphatically.The results showed that the balance between the relatively weak vertical shear and weak cold pool led to the erect updraft of the squall line at the initial stage of the squall line in front of the tropical cyclone.Significant unstable environmental conditions at the leading edge of the squall line with cold and dry air overlapping warm and moist air were an important thermodynamic factor contributing to its development and enhancement.The horizontal wind shear on the right side of the typhoon inverted trough and the gust front which was formed by the low-level divergent airflow and middle-layer rear inflow jet in front of the squall line were the main dynamical factors related to its development.During the mature period,the gradual widening and strengthening of the cold pool on the rear side of the squall line and the squall line in front of the tropical cyclone away from the typhoon led to the decrease of moisture and energy supply.At the same time,the cold and dry air invasion in the mid-level behind the squall line strengthened and diffused toward the lower layer on the side of warm and moist air,which was associated with the warm and moist air flow updraft over the line tilted toward the cold pool side.Consequently,the vertical lifting weakened,which was not conducive to the formation of a new convective cell along the outflow boundary,and was detrimental to the development and maintenance of the squall line.These two features indicated the weakening of the squall line during this period.At the dissipation stage,the squall line moved too far away from the typhoon,and the influence of the typhoon on the squall line became extremely weak.Insufficient moisture supply and lifting led to the decay of the squall line in front of the tropical cyclone.
keywords:the squall line in front of the tropical cyclone  vertical wind shear  Rammasun  typhoon  thermo dynamic characteristics
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